Naxals are members of communist guerrilla groups who claim to represent interests of oppressed classes, comprising about 24 percentage of Indian population and believe in violence as a means to capture State power- a philosophy against the principles of Indian Constitution. Starting in small remote village of Naxalbari in West Bengal in 1967, led by Communist Party of India (Maoist) leader Charu Mazumdar, to primarily address problems of landless, small farmers and farm labour, the movement has gradually covered nearly one third of India.
In 2009 naxalites were active in approximately 180 Districts in 10 States in India. In 2006, that about 20,000 armed cadres, in addition to 50,000 highly motivated regular cadres, of naxalites were operating in India, many well trained in sophisticated smuggled automatic weaponry, improvised explosive devices and land mines. They have an estimated yearly budget of about 1500 million Indian Rupees, collected mainly through extortion mechanism, to propel their violent struggle against Indian State. Their influence runs from Nepal Bihar border in East to Karnataka and Kerala border in South and is reffered as "Red Corridor". In last 10 years more than 5,000 civilians and 1900 security personnel have been killed in different parts of India
" Security Centric" approach has failed to control or eradicate maoist naxalism in last 35 years. " People Centric" approach needs to be aggressively introduced and practiced.
1. Economic Development : Special economic programs should be designed for affected areas and implemented on "Mission Mode". Allocate more funds for Rural and Tribal Development.
2. Implement Land Reforms : Implement 5th and 9th Schedules of the Constitution of India which ordain to give land to Tribals and put a ceiling to land to landlords in tribal areas.
3. Reform Forest Laws : Give tribals limited autonomy with respect to exploitation of natural resources , including fire wood and forest produce, from their own land.
4. Conserve Forests : Environmental laws must be strictly implemented to protect degradation of forests and rivers.
5. Emphasis On Infrastructure Development :Road, rail and other infrastructure may be created in these areas on priority basis.
6. Invest in Education : Extremists have destroyed 284 schools in last 10 years. Allocate larger budget for education in these areas and initiate National Rural Education Mission.
7. Media Management : Media should be actively used to educate tribals to give up path of violence.
8. Sensitize Administration : Restore faith of tribal in justice and Government.